FANDOM


Welcome to the Overmedicated Children with ADHD Wiki

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the United States. Proper treatment is essential so that the child can develop without lasting effects. With the increasing number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it is becoming harder for American children to receive the most effective treatment.  Many parents are choosing to rely on medication to treat their children instead of the recommended combination of various therapies and medication. This trend has resulted in a sharp increase in the amount of medicated children in America and the number of adults who struggle with ADHD.

Attention Disorders

Attention disorders in America

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common mental health disorder in America, with the most effective treatment being a combination of medication and various therapy sessions. ADHD affects over 6 million children in the United States, as well as many adults (Schwarz, 2014, para. 1)[1]. It significantly impacts a child`s neurological and physical development by negatively affecting their academics and socialization skills. Since children with ADHD are at risk for delayed development, significant problems can arise in adulthood. Furthermore, the current treatment for ADHD is ineffective and with the limited use of therapy, ADHD is persisting into adulthood.

Over sixty percent of diagnosed cases persist into adulthood (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2]. This number is a result of children not receiving additional therapy due to their parent’s inability to afford it (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2]. Additionally, some parents are reluctant to commit their child to therapy because it can be very time consuming due to the weekly sessions that are involved (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2]. Adults who suffer from ADHD struggle due to their higher risk for losing their jobs, relationship issues, substance abuse, criminal activity, and suicide (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2]. Also, adults with ADHD may struggle financially due to their increased chance of dropping out of high school (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2].

Definition of attention disorders

In the United States, mental health disorders are prevalent. Unfortunately, some of these affect American children, one being attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder. The broad definition of attention disorders can be defined as “trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active” (CDC, 2016, Introduction section, para. 1)[3]. ADHD has a significant impact on the child`s life at home and in school. It can also negatively impact the child`s social life, isolating him or her from others. In the end, the child`s development is most at stake, which in turn seriously impacts their future.

History of ADHD

Intro 1 ADHD-Stats

In the past few decades, the incidence of ADHD has significantly increased. According to the Centers for Disease Control, ADHD has risen from 7.8 percent in 2003 to 11 percent in 2011 (CDC, 2016, Diagnosis section, para. 6)[3]. The sharp rise in the number of children diagnosed with ADHD can be attributed to ineffective diagnostic tools. No single test can pinpoint the diagnosis. Doctors use a checklist that is in the DSM-5 (talked about later in this paper). This checklist blurs the line between normal misbehaving, symptoms of ADHD, and symptoms of other disorders. According to Benjamin E. Yerys, PhD, a researcher at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, the tool used to diagnosis ADHD is causing the disorder to be over diagnosed in children who have autism (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2016, para. 3)[4]. This is a problem because it increases the number of children on medication. These medications may be ineffective for children with another disorder.

In addition, the constant research on potential new forms of attention disorders is causing an increase in the number. Recently, the idea of a new type of attention disorder, called sluggish cognitive tempo, has come about, which is characterized by “lethargy, daydreaming, and slow mental processing” (Schwarz, 2014, para. 2)[1]. What kid does not daydream? This new disorder would describe every child not only in the United States, but in the world. As a result, thousands of children would be medicated for being a “normal” kid. Benjamin E. Yerys, PhD, has the same opinion because he stated, “ADHD had already grown to encompass too many children with common youthful behavior” (Schwarz, 2014, para. 13)[1]. Medical professionals are taking normal childhood behaviors and categorizing them as a disorder. This has significantly increased the number of children on medication who may not necessarily need it. 

Types of attention disorders

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has two main forms. The first type is called hyperactive-impulsive and its described as fidgeting, inability to sit still, over activeness, restlessness, interject into conversations, and behavioral issues (CDC, 2016, Types section, para. 3)[3]. This child is the one “bouncing off the wall” and who has the most behavioral problems. They are more likely to get injured due to their hyperactivity (CDC, 2016, Types section, para. 3)[3]. The second type is called inattentive and its described as the inability to focus or pay attention to fine details, forgetfulness, and scatterbrained (CDC, 2016, Types section, para. 3)[3]. This child has less behavioral issues but has a problem staying focused and concentrating. Children with this form usually struggle academically due to the inability to focus during school. A child may have a combination of the two forms as well (CDC, 2016, Types section, para. 3)[3].

Causes/risk factors

ADHD has many suggested causes, as well as risk factors. Like many mental health disorders, genetics has been linked to the development of ADHD. Although much research has been done on genetics, a specific gene has yet to be discovered. An infant’s environment plays a key role because exposure to cigarette smoke and environmental toxins, specifically lead, has been known to increase the risk of ADHD (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016, Causes section, para. 4)[5]. Furthermore, exposure to cigarette smoke, alcohol, or drugs while in the womb can significantly increase the risk (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016, Causes section, para. 4)[5]. Brain injuries has also been linked to causing ADHD, although the reason is not known (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016, Causes section, para. 4)[5].  Recently it was discovered that children who experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at higher risk for developing ADHD (Freedman & Burke, 2017, para. 3)[6]. Children who are under the age of 9 are at highest risk when they experience neglect or whose mother has depression or substance abuse problems (Freedman & Burke, 2017, para. 3)[6]. If adverse childhood experiences are avoided or limited, a significant decrease in the prevalence of ADHD in children in the United States is possible.

Some suggested causes and risk factors have proven to be false through extensive research. Although diet can affect a child`s health, eating too much sugar has been proven to have no impact on developing ADHD (CDC, 2016, Causes section, para. 4)[3]. Another suggested risk factor is that poverty or extreme family chaos can increase a child`s risk, but studies have shown that there is no direct correlation between the two (CDC, 2016, Causes section, para. 4)[3].

Diagnosis

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (The DSM-5) is a diagnostic manual that psychologists use to aide in the diagnosis of various mental health disorders. Its format is similar to a checklist, in which certain symptoms need to be present for a specific time for diagnosis. In the DSM-5, ADHD is split into the two forms with certain criteria needed to be met for diagnosis. Also included in the ADHD portion of the manual is the distinction between mild, moderate, and severe forms of the disorder. For proper diagnosis, each symptom must be present for six consecutive months before the age of eighteen (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)[7]. The symptoms need to affect the child`s development, academics, and social life (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)[7]. The diagnostic criteria for the hyperactivity-impulsive form includes:

Fidgets with hands/feet or squirms in chair, frequently leaves chair when seating is expected, runs or climbs excessively, trouble playing/engaging in activities quietly, acts "on the go" and as if "driven by a motor", talks excessively, blurts out answers before questions are completed, trouble waiting or taking turns, interrupts or intrudes on what others are doing. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)[7]

The criteria for the inattentive form is much different and includes:

Fails to pay close attention to details, has trouble sustaining attention, doesn't seem to listen when spoken to directly, fails to follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork or chores, trouble getting organized, avoids or dislikes doing things that require sustained focus/thinking, loses things frequently, easily distracted by other things, forgets things. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)[7]

For both forms, six of the listed symptoms need to be present for a child to be diagnosed (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)[7].

Medication Treatment

Types of medication

Featured mitch-blunt-ted-adhd-final1

Medication is a treatment method for ADHD in children. Two main types of medications are prescribed for people who suffer from this disorder. A third category known as antidepressants, is sometimes prescribed to adults, but it is very rare because they are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016, Treating ADHD section, para. 13)[5].

Stimulants are used to increase the child’s attention span (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016, Treating ADHD section, para. 11)[5].  This category includes methylphenidate drugs which are Ritalin, Methylin, and Concerta (Boorady, 2017, para. 6)[8]. Also included is dextroamphetamine drugs that include the famous Adderall, as well as, Vyvanse and Dexedrine (Boorady, 2017, para. 6)[8]. This category of drugs can cause many problems for the children especially if used for a long period of time or given too high of a dose. The major side effects that can be seen in children is sleep abnormalities, suppressed appetite, delayed development, and irritability when the drug exits the child’s body (Boorady, 2017, para. 2)[8].

The second category is non-stimulants which include atomoxetine, or Strattera (Cleveland Clinic 2017, Nonstimulant Therapy section, para. 1)[9].  These drugs can help a child maintain focus and control their impulsiveness (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016, Treating ADHD section, para. 12)[5]. The side effects are mostly physiological, including nausea and stomach pain, as well as fatigue and moodiness (Cleveland Clinic 2017, Side Effects section, para. 6)[9]

Facts of medication use

Medication is the primary treatment method used by many American children. A study that included over one thousand counties in the United States, found that there were 301,530 children, whom were under the age of 18, taking medication (Gellad, Stein, & Ruder, 2014, Results section, para. 5)[10]. According to a study, non-Hispanic white young and adolescent males were more likely to use medication than girls of any race or age (Jonas, Gu, & Albertorio-Diaz, 2013, para. 2)[11]. Although other therapy is recommended for treatment, many people suffering from ADHD, particularly children, do not attend those therapy sessions and instead use drugs as the only treatment. Of the 301,530 children from the study above, only 22.2 percent attended a therapy session, that number dropped to 13.1 percent for four therapy sessions (Gellad, Stein, & Ruder, 2014, Results section, para. 5)[10]. The study involving two hundred counties in the United States, discovered that one in ten children who were taking medication were simultaneously receiving a form of therapy (Gellad, Stein, & Ruder, 2014, Discussion section, para. 7)[10]. Many children are being medicated but no long-term treatment efforts are being made by the doctor or the parent.

Concerns over medication use

Recently a rise in the number of diagnosed children has occurred. Ultimately leading to an increase in the amount of prescribed psychotropic drugs, such as stimulants and non-stimulants. Many times, medication is used as the sole treatment. These medications may be ineffective for some children. Medication treats the acute symptoms, not the long-term effects. Additionally, medications do not help to manage problems with relationships, academics, or family (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2]. As a result, children are not receiving the most effective treatment. Without additional therapy, ADHD persists into adulthood, severely impacting their life and their potential as adults.

Recent research on the effects of long term medication use, specifically stimulants, showed a negative effect on the child’s growth (Swanson et al., 2017, Results section, p. 668)[12]. The study showed a significant suppression of height but no change of symptom severity even into adulthood (Swanson et al., 2017, Results section, p. 668)[12].

A recent study was completed on the effects of methylphenidate, amphetamines, and atomoxetine on children and adolescent’s cardiovascular health (Hennissen et al., 2017, Introduction section, p. 200)[13]. A significant increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure as well as heart rate were observed in amphetamine and atomoxetine use (Hennissen et al., 2017, Conclusion section, p. 213)[13]. Methylphenidate use is safer since there was only an increase in systolic blood pressure (Hennissen et al., 2017, Introduction section, p. 200)[13]. These findings are important because many cases of adolescents dying from undiagnosed heart conditions have occurred. These negative cardiovascular effects can increase the risk of death in these situations. Furthermore, taking medications that effect the heart can put a person at risk for further complications and/or comorbidities.

The negative effects of medication use are important because many children are taking them for many years. A recent study discovered that approximately 18 to 50 percent of children with ADHD are taking medication for an average of 2 to 3 years (Hennissen et al., 2017, Introduction section, p. 200)[13]. This can significantly increase a child’s risk of developing complications in his or her future.

Various Therapies

Behavioral management

Behavioral management therapy involves parents learning how to deal with their children misbehaving (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Behavior Management section, p. 8)[14]. For very young children, this is the most useful treatment (CDC, 2016, Treatment section, para. 6)[3]. A research study on different types of therapy, showed that parents saw a significant improvement in their child’s behavior and symptoms after receiving behavioral therapy (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Behavior Management section, p. 8)[14]. The child’s teacher can also be involved to ensure that the child is receiving the same degree of discipline from all his or her authority figures (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Behavior Management section, p. 8)[14].

Training interventions

In training interventions, the child directly receives the therapy; he or she is receiving “training” on his or her behavior (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Approach to Updated Review section, p. 3)[14]. Various types of training exist, including cognitive training, neurofeedback, and organizational training. Cognitive training simply involves doing a cognitive exercise on the computer for a maximum of forty minutes at a time (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Training Interventions section, p. 12)[14]. Neurofeedback training also involves computer exercises, which help the child control their behavior and impulsivity (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Training Interventions section, p. 13)[14]. Organization training gives children skills to effectively organize their school life. The children learn how to create schedules for homework as well as organize all schoolwork (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Training Interventions section, p. 14)[14].

Coaching therapy

Coaching is a new treatment modality that has recently been introduced to the mental health world (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, ADHD coaching section, p. 124)[2]. The purpose of this therapy is for a specialized coach to teach children with ADHD how to set goals and develop skills that will help them manage their symptoms (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, ADHD coaching section, p. 124)[2]. The child and his or her parent meet with the coach to set goals and to make a contract with rewards for meeting the goals (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, ADHD coaching section, p. 125)[2]. After the first meeting, the child and coach get together, once a week, to work on reaching the goals and to learn new skills (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, ADHD coaching section, p. 125)[2]. Research has shown that participating in coaching therapy improves the persons “self-esteem, sense of coherence, and quality of life” (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Summary section, p. 128)[2]. In addition, coaching therapy has resulted in a significant improvement in the child’s attention, relationships with others, and academic performance (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Summary section, p. 128)[2].

Combination therapy

The combination of the various behavioral management interventions and training interventions proves to be most effective for managing the symptoms of ADHD. Children’s symptoms significantly improved with combination therapy. In fact, symptoms improved the most in children with “moderate parent-rated ADHD symptoms” (Evans, Owens, & Bunford, 2014, Combined behavioral treatment studies section, p. 12)[14]. Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that a combination of behavioral therapy and medication is an excellent treatment plan for children of all ages (Ahmann, Saviet, & Tuttle, 2017, Diagnosis and prognosis section, p. 122)[2].

Other Treatment Methods

In addition to therapy and medications, parents can help their child manage their symptoms by simple changes in their everyday life. Studies have shown that exercising for a minimum of sixty minutes per day can help the child release some of the excess energy that they have (CDC, 2016, Managing symptoms section, para. 7)[3].  Furthermore, it is recommended that the amount of time a child with ADHD spends on any technological device is limited to avoid over-stimulation (CDC, 2016, Managing symptoms section, para. 7)[3]. Although diet is not directly correlated to ADHD, it is recommended that the child maintains a healthy diet that includes many fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein (CDC, 2016, Managing symptoms section, para. 7)[3]. As always, children should be getting the correct amount of sleep because a well-rested child is better equipped to control their impulsivity and behavior (CDC, 2016, Managing symptoms section, para. 7)[3].

Future Research

Although much research has been performed on the topic of ADHD, there is always room for more discoveries. More research must be done on the causes and risk factors of ADHD, specifically on the role of genetics. The exact role of adverse childhood experiences on the development of ADHD should also be explored. Within the mental health world, many forms of therapy exist and some may be used for ADHD, but further research must be performed on this idea. Furthermore, medication can be ineffective for some children who have ADHD so additional research on items such as diet, is recommended to see if there are other ways to manage symptoms (Rytter et al., 2015, Conclusion section, p. 14)[15].

References

Ahmann, E., Saviet, M., & Tuttle, L.J. (2017). Interventions for ADHD in children and teens: A focus on ADHD coaching. Pediatric Nursing, 43(3), 121-131.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5), Washington, D.C.:

American Psychiatric Association.

Boorady, R. (n.d.). Side effects of ADHD medication. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from https://childmind.org/article/side-effects-of-adhd-medication/

Centers for Disease Control. (2017, May 31). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Basic information. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts/html

Centers for Disease Control. (2017, February 14). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Data and statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia. (2016, October 27). Children with autism may be over-diagnosed with ADHD, new study suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10

Cleveland Clinic. (2017, April 5). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Nonstimulant therapy (Strattera) and other ADHD drugs. Retrieved from http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/attention-deficit-hyerpactivty

Evans, S.W., Owens, J., & Bunford, N. (2014). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(4), 527-551. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.850700

Freedman, M., & Burke, M.G. (2017, July 1). Adverse childhood experiences are linked to ADHD. Contemporary Pediatrics. Retrieved from http://contemporarypediatrics.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-pediatrics/news/adverse-childhood-experiences-are-linked-adhd

Gellad, W.F., Stein, B.D., & Ruder, T. (2014, September 22). Geographic variation in receipt of psychotherapy in children receiving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications. Jama Pediatrics, 11, 168. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1647

Hennissen, L., Bakker, M., Banaschewski, T., Carucci, S., Coghill, D., Danckaerts, M., . . .Buitelaar, J.K. (2017, February 24). Cardiovascular effects of stimulant and non-stimulant medication for children and adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of methylphenidate, amphetamines and atomoxetine. CNS Drugs, 31, 199-215. doi: 10.1007/s40263-017-0410-7

Jonas, B.S., Gu, Q., & Albertorio-Diaz, J.R. (2013, December). Psychotropic medication use among adolescents: United states, 2005-2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db135.htm

National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The basics. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-basics/index.htm

Rytter, M.J., Anderson, L.B., Houmann, T., Bilenberg, N., Hvolby, A., Mølgaard, C., . . .Lotte, L. (2014, May 2). Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children – A systematic review of the literature. Nord J Psychiatry, 69, 1-18.

Schwarz, A. (2014, April 11). Idea of new attention disorder spurs research, and debate. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2014/04/12/health

Swanson, J.M., Arnold, L.E., Molina, B., Sibley, M.H., Hectman, L.T., Hinshaw, S.P., . . .Kraemer, H.C. (2017). Young adult outcomes in the follow-up of the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Symptom persistence, source discrepancy, and height suppression. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 58(6), 663-678. doi: 10.111/jcpp.12684

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Schwarz, A. (2014, April 11). Idea of new attention disorder spurs research, and debate. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2014/04/12/health
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Ahmann, E., Saviet, M., & Tuttle, L.J. (2017). Interventions for ADHD in children and teens: A focus on ADHD coaching. Pediatric Nursing, 43(3), 121-131.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Centers for Disease Control. (2017, February 14). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Data and statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
  4. Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia. (2016, October 27). Children with autism may be over-diagnosed with ADHD, new study suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The basics. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-basics/index.htm
  6. 6.0 6.1 Freedman, M., & Burke, M.G. (2017, July 1). Adverse childhood experiences are linked to ADHD. Contemporary Pediatrics. Retrieved from http://contemporarypediatrics.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-pediatrics/news/adverse-childhood-experiences-are-linked-adhd
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 American Psychiatric Association (2013). DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5), Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Boorady, R. (n.d.). Side effects of ADHD medication. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved from http://childmind.org/article/side-effects-of-adhd-medication/
  9. 9.0 9.1 Cleveland Clinic. (2017, April 5). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):Nonstimulant therapy (Strattera) and other ADHD drugs. Retrieved from http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/attention-deficit-hyerpactivty
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Gellad, W.F., Stein, B.D., & Ruder, T. (2014, September 22). Geographic variation in receipt of psychotherapy in children receiving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medications. Jama Pediatrics, 11, 168. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1647
  11. Jonas, B.S., Gu, Q., & Albertorio-Diaz, J.R. (2013, December). Psychotropic medication use among adolescents: United states, 2005-2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db135.htm
  12. 12.0 12.1 Swanson, J.M., Arnold, L.E., Molina, B., Sibley, M.H., Hectman, L.T., Hinshaw, S.P., . . .Kraemer, H.C. (2017). Young adult outcomes in the follow-up of the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Symptom persistence, source discrepancy, and height suppression. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 58(6), 663-678. doi: 10.111/jcpp.12684
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Hennissen, L., Bakker, M., Banaschewski, T., Carucci, S., Coghill, D., Danckaerts, M., . . . Buitelaar, J.K. (2017, February 24). Cardiovascular effects of stimulant and non-stimulant medication for children and adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of methylphenidate, amphetamines and atomoxetine. CNS Drugs, 31, 199-215. doi: 10.1007/s40263-017-0410-7
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 Evans, S.W., Owens, J., & Bunford, N. (2014). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(4), 527-551. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.850700
  15. Rytter, M.J., Anderson, L.B., Houmann, T., Bilenberg, N., Hvolby, A., Mølgaard, C., . . .Lotte, L. (2014, May 2). Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children – A systematic review of the literature. Nord J Psychiatry, 69, 1-18.

Latest activity

Photos and videos are a great way to add visuals to your wiki. Find videos about your topic by exploring Fandom's Video Library.

Adhd-workingmemory-wordcloud
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.